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Plastic and Polymer Technology and Engineering Hot Topics

The First PlasticThe first man-made plastic was created by Alexander Parkes who publicly demonstrated it at the 1862 Great International Exhibition in London. The material called Parkesine was an organic material derived from cellulose that once heated could be molded, and retained its shape when cooled.

What plastic are ?
Plastic covers a range of synthetic or semisynthetic polymerization products. They are composed of organic condensation or addition polymers and may contain other substances to improve performance or economics. There are few natural polymers generally considered to be "plastics". Plastics can be formed into objects or films or fibers. Their name is derived from the fact that many are malleable, having the property of plasticity

Time Line History
There are 3 big historical plastic area, begin at 1839 when processing of natural rubber invented by Charles Goodyear
Basic Natural Rubber

  • 1839 - Natural Rubber - method of processing invented by Charles Goodyear
  • 1843 - Vulcanite invented by Thomas Hancock
  • 1843 - Gutta-Percha invented by William Montgomerie
  • 1856 - Shellac invented by Alfred Critchlow and Samuel Peck
  • 1856 - Bois Durci invented by Francois Charles Lepag
Semi Synthetics Plastic Era
  • 1839 - Polystyrene or PS discovered by Eduard Simon
  • 1862 - Parkesine In London, Alexander Parkes unveils the first-ever man-made plastic. Dubbed "Parkesine," it fails due to high costs
  • 1863 - Cellulose Nitrate or Celluloid discovered by John Wesley Hyatt
  • 1069 - XyloniteAfter the failure of Parkesine, Daniel Spill tries to manufacture a similar material named Xylonite. The company goes bankrupt in 1874
  • 1872 - Polyvinyl Chloride or PVC first created by Eugen Baumann
  • 1894 - Viscose Rayon discovered by Charles Frederick Cross and Edward John Bevan

Thermosetting Plastics and Thermoplastics

  • 1908 - Cellophane discovered by Jacques E. Brandenberger
  • 1909 - First true plastic Phenol are Formaldehyde tradenamed Bakelite. Bakelite The first completely synthetic man-made substance, Bakelite is invented in 1909 by independent New York chemist Leo H. Baekeland. The "material of a thousand uses" is used to make everything from car parts to jewellery, but jewellery sales are suspended in 1942 in order to concentrate supplies on the war effort. Bakelite pieces are now valuable collectibles. Andy Warhol was an avid collector and, when he died in 1987, his pieces sold for record prices at Sotheby's1926 - Vinyl or PVC discovered by Walter Semon invented a plasticized PVC.
  • 1927 - Catalin, When Bakelite's 1910 patent expires in 1927, the Catalin corporation starts making the same substance under the name "Catalin" and adds fifteen new colours to the colour range. 70% of the "bakelite" remaining today is Catalin. Also suspends jewellery sales in 1942 (see above). Plastic is the perfect medium for the Art Deco period, when bold, colourful, geometric designs are popular.
  • 1927 - Cellulose Acetate
  • 1933 Polyvinylidene chloride or Saran also called PVDC accidentally discovered by Ralph Wiley, a Dow Chemical lab worker.
  • 1935 - Low-density polyethylene or LDPE discovered by Reginald Gibson and Eric Fawcett
  • 1936 - Acrylic or Polymethyl Methacrylate was discovered
  • 1937 - Polyurethanes tradenamed Igamid for plastics materials and Perlon for fibers discovered by Otto Bayer and co-workers discovered and patented the chemistry of polyurethanes
  • 1938 - Polystyrene made practical
  • 1938 - Polytetrafluoroethylene or PTFE tradenamed Teflon discovered by Roy Plunkett
  • 1939 - Nylon and Neoprene considered a replacement for silk and a synthetic rubber respectively Wallace Hume Carothers
  • 1941 - Polyethylene Terephthalate or Pet - Whinfield and Dickson
  • 1942 - Low Density Polyethylene
  • 1942 - Unsaturated Polyester also called PET patented by John Rex Whinfield and James Tennant Dickson
  • 1951 - High-density polyethylene or HDPE tradenamed Marlex invented by Paul Hogan and Robert Banks
  • 1951 - Polypropylene or PP invented by Paul Hogan and Robert Banks
  • 1953 - Daniel Fox, a chemist at General Electric, discovers a polycarbonate resin thermoplastic that looks like acrylic but is much more durable (almost bulletproof). A patent is filed in 1955 and it is given the brand name "Lexan." Familiar products made of Lexan include Apple's iBook and iPod and Naglene water bottles.
  • 1953 - Saran Wrap introduced by Dow Chemicals.
  • 1954 - Styrofoam the trademarked form of polystyrene foam insulation, invented by Ray McIntire for Dow Chemicals
  • 1964 - Polyimide
  • 1970 - Thermoplastic Polyester this includes trademarked Dacron, Mylar, Melinex, Teijin, and Tetoron
  • 1978 - Linear Low Density Polyethylene
  • 1985 - Liquid Crystal Polymers wasdiscovered
    and until now many ofkinf plastic was dicovered, now almost product good always contain a plastics